THE ROLE OF BIOMETRICS IN MODERN DAY COMPUTING

Diploma

ABSTRACT

Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. It is an automated method of recognizing an individual based on physiological or behavioral characteristics such as fingerprints, distinctiveness in terms of characteristics, persistence characteristics, collectability characteristics, and the ability of the method to deliver accurate results under varied environmental circumstances, acceptability, and circumvention. Biometric technology is useful in the securing of electronic banking, investing and other financial transactions, retail sales, law enforcement, health and social services. This paper elicits how biometrics works, how biometric-based solution is used to provide for confidential financial transactions and personal data privacy, compared the various components of biometrics and looked at the various areas of application. Finally, we recommend a combination of facial and Iris scan recognition biometrics for used to ensure that security of data stored by corporate bodies does not get to wrong person.


INTRODUCTION

The dynamic scientific and technical progress, which causes   everyone's   surprise,   opens   a   wide   range   of opportunities     for     the     development     of     biometric technologies. The technology has a very important role in preventing dangerous incidents.  Biometric  identification technology  is  one  of  the  effective  tools  to  detect  and overcome the criminals. The   use   of   biometric   technologies   provides   reliable verification of the passengers crossing state borders, and strengthens the control of passport and visa regulations, and   other   identification   documents.   The   recognition systems are of particular importance here. In addition to the criminal law system, it is widely used in other areas. Leading research institutions around  the  world  conduct researches  in  this   regard.  Azerbaijan  takes   measures against    dangerous    phenomena,    and    develops    state programs,  as  well.  The  relevant  agencies  of  Azerbaijan National    Academy    of    Sciences    (ANAS),    which    are integrating  into  the  world  science,  provide  permanent scientific  support  to  the  state  programs  adopted  by  the state   president.   And   the   new   tasks   arisen   from   the adoption of the “State Program on the development of biometric   identification   system   in   the Republic   of Azerbaijan” are implemented by the scientists consistently. Biometric   technologies   are   widely   used   in   security systems. 

The  main  advantages  of  biometric  technologies  include high  reliability,  maximum  protection  from  unauthorized access, and simplicity of use. Various biometric technologies exist:

·        Signature dynamics. Based on an individual's signature, but considered unforgeable because what is recorded isn't the final image but how it is produced -- i.e., differences in pressure and writing speed at various points in the signature.

·        Typing patterns. Similar to signature dynamics but extended to the keyboard, recognizing not just a password that is typed in but the intervals between characters and the overall speeds and pattern. This is akin to the way World War II intelligence analysts could recognize a specific covert agent's radio transmissions by his "hand" -- the way he used the telegraph key.

·        Eye scans. This favorite of spy movies and novels presents its own problems. The hardware is expensive and specialized, and using it is slow and inconvenient and may make users uneasy. In fact, two parts of the eye can be scanned, using different technologies: the retina and the iris.

·        Fingerprint recognition. Everyone knows fingerprints are unique. They are also readily accessible and require little physical space either for the reading hardware or the stored data.

·        Hand or palm geometry. We're used to fingerprints but seldom think of an entire hand as an individual identifier. This method relies on devices that measure the length and angles of individual fingers. Although more user-friendly than retinal scans, it's still cumbersome.

·        Voice recognition. This is different from speech recognition. The idea is to verify the individual speaker against a stored voice pattern, not to understand what is being said.

·        Facial recognition. Uses distinctive facial features, including upper outlines of eye sockets, areas around cheekbones, the sides of the mouth and the location of the nose and eyes. Most technologies avoid areas of the face near the hairline so that hairstyle changes won't affect recognition.

·        Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) identification technology, and so on.

Nowadays, biometric technologies are applied in different areas, from  work  entrance  organization  to  the  person identification during payment transactions. The use of new defense tools is of particular significance during e-business and banking transactions. Multimodal biometric technologies  are  used  to improve  identification  in  long-term studies; therefore, the control is carried out according to several biometric features, which enables to prevent an unauthorized access. The  use  of  biometric  technology  is  indispensable  for improving the security of various systems that require the user  verification  and  the  development  of  information technologies. Its use will prevent an unauthorized access to material  objects  and  data  reliably,  as  well  as  ensure efficient identification of a person.

Biometric technologies are applied in diverse areas: access to   work   places   and   network   resources,   information protection, providing access to certain resources, airport security and so on. Note that, implementation of e-business and e-government is possible with only identification of a person, i.e., without any other procedures. The US Federal   Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has announced the completion of the recognition of a new biometric system. The data  on  tens  of  millions  of  US residents will be included in the system's database. Over time, such systems are expected to be developed in Russia. FBI Next Generation Identification (NGF) system collects and processes the data, and identifies the eyes, fingerprints and iris. The system responses to high level requests in real-time mode as soon as possible.